AP American Studies Final Exam


Semester 1; 2003-4


1. Which statement about agriculture and the development of society is not correct?

a. In the Southwest, natives farmed for most of their food and therefore created centralized or confederate political systems.

b. In the Eastern Woodlands, natives first developed village life and political centralization without farming but later developed a productive agriculture.

c. On the Northwest Coast, natives shunned agriculture yet nevertheless consolidated their societies.

d. Throughout North America, patterns of agriculture and the development of society were generally similar.


2. Which of the following generalizations about pre-Columbian cultures is true?

a. Only native cultures in the Eastern Woodlands developed the bow and arrow and used ceramic pottery.

b. All Native American cultures were characterized by a preference for independent kin-based communities and certain beliefs and rituals surrounding burial of the dead.

c. No society had much in common with any other society.

d. Almost all the societies were the same in terms of political and social structure, religious beliefs, and basic contributions.


3. In 1492 the most important Native American social groups included all of the following factors except

a. the village.

b. the tribal confederation.

c. the clan.

d. the family.


4. The authority of Native American leaders most often depended primarily on

a. the number of scalps that could be accumulated in warfare.

b. what they could accomplish by compulsion.

c. the respect that they could invoke.

d. how many gifts they could accumulate in the potlatch ceremony.


5. The first inhabitants of the Americas reached the Western Hemisphere by

a. giant outrigger canoes from the western coast of Africa.

b. swift sailing vessels crossing from northern Europe to Iceland to New England.

c. migrating from Asia across the then existing Alaska-Siberia land bridge.

d. migrating in outrigger canoes from Polynesia to the Isthmus of Panama and Central America.


6. How did Columbus react to the natives when he reached the Western Hemisphere?

a. He thought they were descendants of earlier Viking explorers.

b. all of these.

c. He thought they could be Christianized and become good servants.

d. He thought they were gullible fools.


7. The Puritans wished to reform the Church of England by

a. clearly distinguishing between the clergy and the congregation.

b. purifying it of Roman Catholic rituals.

c. discouraging laypersons from interfering in church affairs.

d. reverting to purer Roman Catholic rituals.


8. The Puritan conversion experience required

a. self-examination.

b. all of these.

c. self-denial.

d. repentance.


9. Which of the following sixteenth-century European religious groups was the most socially and politically radical?

a. Anabaptists

b. Lutherans

c. Calvinists

d. Jesuits


10. Which of the following statements is correct?

a. John Cabot rounded South America and crossed the Pacific to the Philippines, where he died; one of his ships became the first to sail around the world.

b. Christopher Columbus crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached the Pacific.

c. Jacques Cartier explored the coasts of Newfoundland, Quebec, and Nova Scotia and ascended the St. Lawrence.

d. Ferdinand Magellan explored the North American coast from the Carolinas to Newfoundland.


11. Which of the following statements about Christopher Columbus is correct?

a. His sole goal was to glorify his god, and he thought nothing of personal gain or even the finances of his expedition.

b. He embarked on his expedition with limited navigating experience.

c. He was simply one of about a dozen would-be explorers who roamed Europe endlessly hawking their enterprises.

d. He was using outdated calculations and estimates about the earth's circumference and Asia's eastward thrust.


12. Which of the following was considered a "sea dog"?

a. Jacques Cartier

b. John Smith

c. Sir Francis Drake

d. Richard Hakluyt


13. What was the main problem that crippled the Roanoke colony?

a. The English settlers refused to work.

b. The British refused to send more supplies.

c. The blacks brought by the English refused to live in harmony with the Native Americans.

d. The Native Americans refused to trade with the English settlers.


14. Which of the following is not a reason why Captain John Smith succeeded in Jamestown where others had failed?

a. He successfully defeated all neighboring Native American tribes.

b. He organized all settlers in well-supervised work gangs.

c. He imposed military discipline on the colony.

d. He established rules for maintaining sanitation and hygiene.


15. The Pilgrims migrated to New England mainly in search of

a. political rights.

b. religious freedom.

c. fertile land for farming.

d. employment.


16. Which of the following was not a Quaker belief?

a. An individual's Inner Light could best be revealed through the ceremony and music of a religious service.

b. The Holy Spirit could inspire every soul.

c. Women and men were equal in their ability to understand the Inner Light.

d. Individuals deserved recognition for their spiritual state rather than their wealth or family status.


17. Governor John Winthrop of Massachusetts Bay colony advocated a social philosophy that emphasized

a. class struggle.

b. social reciprocity.

c. survival of the fittest.

d. equality between the sexes.


18. Which of the following was not considered a religious dissenter in Massachusetts?

a. Thomas Hooker

b. Anne Hutchinson

c. John Cotton

d. Roger Williams




19. Puritan society was organized around

a. the individual.

b. a social hierarchy based on education.

c. a social hierarchy based on wealth.

d. the family.


20. The Native American population in New England was reduced by all of the following factors except

a. King Philip's War.

b. diseases introduced by Europeans.

c. the Thirty Years' War.

d. the Pequot War.


21. The Puritan attitude toward converting Native Americans was

a. colored by the deep hatred that Europeans felt for the Indians, which caused the Puritans to avoid any contact with them.

b. to allow Indians to maintain their own cultural and religious beliefs.

c. to attract Indians to Puritanism by appealing to the Indians' appreciation of ceremony while relating Puritan doctrine to Indian beliefs.

d. to organize "praying Indians" into "praying towns" where Indians were taught alien Puritan ways.


22. Those accused of witchcraft in the Salem trials

a. included both low-status individuals and prominent citizens.

b. were almost exclusively the poor and powerless in the community.

c. were young, troubled girls.

d. were slaves.


23. All of the following were factors in the Salem witch trials except

a. rising sinfulness as later generations abandoned the disciplined habits of the founding generation.

b. rivalry between two families, one still prominent and one that had lost prestige.

c. displaced resentment that young girls felt toward their mothers and other older women.

d. conflict between communally oriented rural residents and individualistic urban residents.


24. The economy in the Chesapeake in the second half of the seventeenth century

a. boomed as tobacco prices skyrocketed.

b. was marked by boom-bust cycles linked to fluctuations in the price of cotton.

c. was marked by depression as tobacco prices fell.

d. remained stable because self-sufficient Chesapeake farmers concentrated on subsistence farming.


25. After 1660, the English

a. began a new wave of colony building.

b. turned inward to reform their own society rather than establish new societies across the seas.

c. outlawed royal ownership of overseas colonies.

d. embarked on an era of free trade by repealing most parliamentary acts dealing with overseas commerce.

26. Which of the following is one of the reasons that the cultivation of rice changed South Carolina society dramatically?

a. Vast areas of the interior were opened up to rice cultivation.

b. The discovery of a profitable crop meant that there would be more work for thousands of indentured servants.

c. Rice cultivation required the use of slaves.

d. Because rice could be grown on small farms, with minimal capital investment, South Carolina became a society of small farmers.


27. What was the most important factor in France's ability to hold its vast North American domain against Spanish and English expansion?

a. the presence of a large and expensive French army

b. the establishment of thriving and stable communities throughout New France

c. good relations with the Native Americans

d. the construction of fortified missions by the coureurs de bois




28. How was eighteenth-century colonial settlement affected by the Native American populations?

a. Through the depopulation and dislocation of Native Americans, European colonial settlements were able to expand rapidly.

b. Native Americans encouraged English settlement as a way of protecting themselves from the French and Spanish.

c. Resistance from various Native American tribes restricted the growth of European settlements.

d. Native Americans negotiated treaties that contained European settlers to a 100-mile-wide strip along the Atlantic coast.


29. What was the main reason the population of the British North American colonies shot up in the eighteenth century?

a. conclusion of the wars with the Spanish and French

b. high birthrate

c. discovery of wonder drugs to cure diseases

d. immigration from Europe


30. Which of the following statements about Georgia is not correct?

a. It was supposed to flourish by exporting expensive commodities such as wine and silk.

b. It was populated by large numbers of debtors who otherwise would have had to rot in jail.

c. For a time it was the only English colony where slavery was forbidden.

d. It enjoyed good relations with southeastern Indian tribes.


31. Mercantilism was

a. a colonial American policy of trading primarily with England in order to strengthen political and economic ties.

b. a government policy aimed at achieving national economic self-sufficiency.

c. all of these.

d. an economic theory carefully elaborated by Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations.


32. Which of the following European wars is correctly matched with its American name?

a. War of the Austrian Succession: King George's War

b. Seven Years' War: Queen Anne's War

c. none of these.

d. War of the Spanish Succession: French and Indian Wars


33. As a result of King George's War,

a. France was established as the dominant power in North America.

b. the English captured and then returned the French fort on the northern tip of Nova Scotia, guarding the entrance to the St. Lawrence River.

c. the French were expelled from North America.

d. four thousand New Englanders were killed in a futile assault on the French bastion of Louisbourg.


34. As a result of the Treaty of Paris of 1763,

a. Louisbourg was returned to the French in exchange for a British outpost in India that the French had taken during the war.

b. most of Spain's New World empire was transferred to France.

c. France lost all its possessions in the New World.

d. the British gained Florida and Canada and became supreme in eastern North America.


35. During the 1760s, British tax rates were

a. the second lowest in Europe.

b. considerably lower than the rates in the colonies.

c. the second highest in Europe.

d. the same as the rates in the colonies.


36. In the face of the colonial reaction to the Stamp Act the British government

a. revoked the act and slowly began to return its colonial policies to those of salutary neglect.

b. concluded that the colonies were incapable of cooperating and that the next phase of imperial restructuring should begin.

c. reinforced all British garrisons in North America and prepared for a long conflict.

d. revoked the act but reaffirmed parliamentary power to legislate for the colonies in all cases.





37. The Townshend Duties

a. raised large amounts of revenue and helped to reduce the British treasury's serious deficit.

b. imposed such heavy duties on imported goods that colonists could no longer afford to buy them.

c. set only moderate tax rates that did not price goods out of the colonial market.

d. required that all legal documents and newspapers be printed on special watermarked paper.


38. Who wrote twelve Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania arguing that Parliament could regulate trade but could not tax for the purpose of raising revenue?

a. Patrick Henry

b. James Otis

c. John Dickinson

d. Benjamin Franklin


39. Which of the following was the attorney who defended the British soldiers accused of firing on the civilians in the Boston Massacre?

a. Thomas Paine

b. John Dickinson

c. Thomas Hutchinson

d. John Adams


40. All of the following factors helped to convince colonists that the British government was set on a course aimed at destroying fundamental freedoms except

a. government reaction to the Gaspee incident.

b. the Hutchinson letters.

c. Edmund Burke's proposals to Parliament in March 1775.

d. the Townshend duties.


41. The Coercive Acts

a. all of these.

b. restructured the Massachusetts government.

c. closed Boston harbor.

d. permitted certain murderers to be tried in England.


42. The attitude of colonial Americans in 1775 concerning reconciliation with Britain can be seen in

a. the creation of the Continental Army.

b. all of these.

c. a sentimental attachment to the king.

d. the Olive Branch Petition.


43. American Tories believed that

a. the king, not Parliament, was responsible for the problems facing the colonies.

b. Parliament had the right to tax the colonies.

c. only independence could preserve the colonists' constitutional rights.

d. separation from Britain was an illegal act that would ignite an unnecessary war.


44. The American army in the early years of the War for Independence can be characterized as

a. a well-trained army with a strong tradition of bravery under fire.

b. buoyed by a string of exhilarating victories.

c. ill fed, ill clothed, and ill trained.

d. floundering because of a lack of effective or respected leaders.


45. At the Battle of Saratoga

a. cooperation between General Washington's armies and the French fleet trapped General Cornwallis and forced him to surrender.

b. fifty-nine cannons that Colonel Henry Knox brought overland from Fort Ticonderoga helped to save the day for the Americans.

c. General Washington was forced to retreat to New Jersey to escape defeat.

d. a British drive toward Albany was halted when General Burgoyne surrendered 5,800 troops to General Gates.







46. Frederick von Steuben was

a. the representative of Prussia at the Paris peace conference.

b. the commander of the Hessian forces employed by the British during the War for Independence.

c. the man who turned the American army into a formidable fighting force.

d. the leader of the Antifederalist forces in Pennsylvania.


47. Which of the following battles forced the British government to commence peace negotiations with the Americans?

a. Saratoga

b. Yorktown

c. Camden

d. Brandywine Creek


48. In the late eighteenth century, what did many Americans think about political parties?

a. Political parties could function as the practical embodiment of different social classes and regions.

b. Political parties would provide stability and a sense of tradition to a system that otherwise would unravel at the seams.

c. Political parties were factionsselfish groups that advanced their own interests at the expense of the public good.

d. Political parties were necessary instruments for identifying and mobilizing public opinion.


49. For most American Whigs, what did the concept of "democracy" imply?

a. government by capable leaders elected for their superior talents and wisdom

b. a system that was unworkable in a nation as geographically extensive and ethnically diverse as the United States

c. either mob rule or concentration of power in the hands of the uneducated multitude

d. a system that delicately balanced the interests of different classes to prevent any one group from gaining absolute power


50. The conditions which led to Daniel Shays's Rebellion included

a. farm foreclosures.

b. huge tax increases.

c. economic recession.

d. all of these.


51. The proposal to create a single-chamber congress in which each state had an equal vote was known as the

a. New Jersey Plan.

b. Connecticut Plan.

c. Three-fifths Plan.

d. Virginia Plan.


52. What lesson should a Philadelphia businessman in 1795 have learned from the career of Stephen Girard?

a. that bankruptcy was the certain result of straying into new and untested business ventures

b. that great success would come only through a readiness to take risks in new kinds of business ventures

c. that immigrants would have little chance of breaking into Philadelphia's Quaker-dominated upper class

d. that great fortunes were to be made in fishing and commerce


53. Which of the following statements about mechanics is not true?

a. Their wives and daughters often helped in the shop but rarely sought outside employment.

b. They lived in close-knit neighborhoods with others of their trade and enjoyed drinking, marching, and mobbing.

c. They had supported the Articles of Confederation, advocated the removal of all restrictions on trade, and favored a weak and passive national government.

d. They tended to follow in their fathers' occupational footsteps.







54. Why did the southern states vote for Hamilton's plan to assume state debts?

a. Northern representatives agreed to transfer the federal capital from Philadelphia to a location on the Potomac River in Virginia.

b. Most southern senators and congressmen had speculated in state bonds and would make large profits if they were repaid in full by the federal government.

c. Most of them had been unable to pay off their debts and stood to gain from federal assumption of that debt.

d. Southerners believed that a stronger union would benefit the South more than other sections of the nation.


55. Hamilton's domestic program reflected his belief that

a. America's best opportunity for economic survival lay in its traditional source of strength, agriculture.

b. the nation had to be industrially self-sufficient, and that the national government had to maintain authority over the states.

c. the survival of the federal government depended on the republican virtues of the common people.

d. the states needed to reassert power over the national government, because individual self-sacrifice and virtue were most effective on the local level.


56. The main purpose of the tariff that Hamilton proposed in his Report on Manufactures was to

a. raise the price of domestic products so that merchants and manufacturers, Hamilton's main supporters, would prosper.

b. punish the British for their discriminatory tariffs.

c. raise all the money the federal government needed to operate.

d. protect and foster domestic manufacturing.


57. Political coalitions began to develop during Washington's first term over the issue of

a. interference with American shipping by France and Britain.

b. Hamilton's financial program.

c. the creation of the federal court system.

d. Washington's successor.


58. Which of the following was one of the accomplishments of Jay's Treaty?

a. It reopened the British West Indies trade to American ships.

b. It settled the issue of compensation for slaves taken during the Revolution.

c. It arranged for withdrawal of British troops from American soil.

d. It ended the British practice of impressment.


59. The United States gained unrestricted access to the Mississippi River and New Orleans by

a. negotiating a treaty with Spain.

b. buying New Orleans from the French.

c. sending 3,000 regulars and Kentucky militiamen across the river into Spanish territory.

d. signing an alliance with France against Spain.


60. Which action of President Adams angered the "High Federalists"?

a. his signing of the Alien and Sedition Acts

b. his request for a larger army

c. his handling of the XYZ Affair

d. his decision to improve relations with France in 1799-1800


61. What legal principle was established by the case of Marbury v. Madison?

a. presidential succession

b. territorial acquisition

c. federal supremacy

d. judicial review


62. Why did President Jefferson consider French ownership of Louisiana unacceptable?

a. The French might join forces with the British and endanger American security.

b. Ownership by a weaker nation than France offered more possibilities for the United States.

c. all of these.

d. If the French quarreled with the British, the United States might find itself caught in the middle.




63. Why did Federalists oppose the Louisiana Purchase?

a. They believed that the purchase would lead to a decline in the relative importance of their strongholds.

b. They wished to be the party in power when territorial acquisitions were made.

c. They believed that the Constitution had to be interpreted strictly.

d. They objected to the purchase of something that had been tainted by the French Revolution.


64. The Lewis and Clark expedition produced all the following results except

a. new geographic knowledge.

b. hostile relations with Native Americans.

c. stimulation of interest in the West.

d. new scientific information.


65. The practice of impressment involved

a. attempts by the British to convince their opponents that they were wrong.

b. seizure of American sailors who had defected to the French during the Napoleonic Wars.

c. seizure of purported British sailors from American merchant ships, and pressing them into service.

d. the French policy of forcing all nations to impress their soldiers into the French army.


66. The Embargo Act

a. convinced the French to drop their trade restrictions against the United States.

b. badly damaged the British economy.

c. was favored by New England but resisted in the South.

d. stimulated the growth of manufacturing in the United States.


67. After the War of 1812, Henry Clay called for an "American System," by which he meant

a. a new way of winning wars.

b. internal improvements that would make the nation self-sufficient.

c. a system of high tariffs to keep out European products.

d. a unique method of manufacturing that Europeans could not emulate.


68. In McCulloch v. Maryland, the Supreme Court declared that

a. a state cannot tax an agency of the federal government.

b. a college had a right to a charter.

c. the state of Maryland was superior to the United States.

d. Congress lacked the power to charter a national bank.


69. Which of the following events occurred during Madison's presidency?

a. The United States sent a naval squadron against the Barbary pirates of North Africa.

b. Congress chartered a second national bank.

c. The United States bought Florida from Spain.

d. Congress passed the embargo.


70. What was the purpose of the Indian Removal Act of 1830?

a. to encourage Georgia to establish Indian schools

b. to facilitate white settlement on Indian lands

c. to remove Indians from the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court

d. to eliminate barriers to Indian unity


71. Which pair of Supreme Court cases dealt with federal Indian policy?

a. Dartmouth College v. Woodward and McCulloch v. Maryland

b. Marbury v. Madison and Worcester v. Georgia

c. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgia

d. Fletcher v. Peck and Gibbons v. Ogden


72. Andrew Jackson's remark, "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it," refers to the president's intention to

a. move the Cherokees west of the Mississippi River regardless of Supreme Court rulings.

b. use force, if necessary, to make South Carolina obey federal law that South Carolina thought was unconstitutional.

c. disregard Chief Justice Marshall's ruling in Gibbons v. Ogden.

d. destroy the National Bank despite the Supreme Court ruling upholding its constitutionality.


73. The theory that the Union is a compact among the states and that a state has the right to override a federal law is known as

a. nullification.

b. division.

c. statism.

d. sectionalism.


74. The tariff controversy of the early 1830s showed that

a. the nation was united in the pursuit of economic nationalism.

b. Andrew Jackson was too stubborn to compromise on matters of high principle.

c. the nation faced serious and growing sectional pressures in the years ahead.

d. Henry Clay could never be elected president.


75. What was one of the reasons why Andrew Jackson vetoed the rechartering of the Bank of the United States?

a. It refused to accept deposits of federal revenue.

b. The bank prevented state banks from lending money.

c. Its president constantly meddled in national politics.

d.       It was a private monopoly run by a privileged few.


76. The difference between "hard money" and "soft money" is

a. hard money has no value, while soft money increases in value.

b. soft money is issued for only a specified number of months.

c. hard money is gold or silver, while soft money is paper.

d. hard money is difficult to acquire.


77. In the late 1830s and early 1840s, what group believed that the end of the world was imminent?

a. Oneidans

b. Millerites

c. Mormons

d. Reformers


78. Why did Vice President Martin Van Buren lose the presidential election of 1840?

a. the military record of his opponent

b. his sluggish campaigning

c. the economic depression

d. all of these.


79. The "gag rule" was repealed in 1845 largely because of the efforts of

a. Horace Mann.

b. Andrew Jackson.

c. Theodore Weld.

d. John Quincy Adams.


80. What conclusions can you draw from a comparison of Oneida with other utopian communities of the antebellum era?

a. Because American society was secular, a utopian community would be most likely to survive if it had little or no religious purpose.

b. Intellectuals had no place in such communities.

c. In order to survive, utopian communities needed to engage in agriculture rather than in manufacturing.

d. Utopian communities could survive only when they were isolated from the rest of society.


81. Which of the following writers defended the right to disobey unjust laws, criticized the materialism of American society, and doubted the beneficial effects of technological advances?

a. Walt Whitman

b. John Greenleaf Whittier

c. James Fenimore Cooper

d. Henry David Thoreau


82. During the pre-Civil War decades, American painters preferred to paint

a. landscapes.

b. mythological tales.

c. portraits.

d. historical topics.


83. Frances Trollope's experiences in Cincinnati, Ohio, demonstrate that

a. Americans were crass and materialistic.

b. popular culture could be profitable as long as it offered at least a pretense of edification.

c. an intellectual woman with abolitionist leanings had no place in an American city.

d. Cincinnati was a dull place.


84. Which of the following is a crop that was not associated with the Old South?

a. rice

b. tobacco

c. wheat

d. cotton


85. Which of the following accurately describes the Upper South and the Lower South?

a. After about 1830, both were united in their defense of slavery.

b. The Upper South depended entirely on cotton, while the Lower South had a diversified economy.

c. The Upper South tended to identify more with the North than with the Lower South.

d. Both sections aggressively advocated secession.


86. Which of the following statements about the white folk of the pine barrens is incorrect?

a. They usually worked for the planters as tenant farmers, sharecroppers, or overseers.

b. They usually favored the institution of slavery though they owned no slaves.

c. They carried on subsistence farming.

d. They generally squatted on their land rather than owning it.


87. How would you describe antebellum southern politics?

a. Serious and divisive issues caused fragmentation.

b. Only the Democratic party had any support in the South.

c. The political structure was controlled by one social group.

d. An underlying political unity reigned despite conflicts.


88. Music and dance enabled slaves to

a. demonstrate religious beliefs.

b. express the sorrows of slavery.

c. all of these.

d. lessen the tedium of work.


89. Emigrants from Europe to America encountered all of the following except

a. dishonest hucksters who cheated them.

b. a terrifying ocean voyage.

c. frustrations over the difficulties of American farming.

d. separation from their countrymen after they reached America.



90. Presidios were

a. forts constructed by the Spanish to protect their missions in the Southwest.

b. Franciscan priests who endeavored to convert the Indians to Christianity.

c. agents who contracted with the Mexican government to bring American settlers into Texas.

d. Mexicans who owned huge ranches worked by enslaved Indians.


91. The Whig political program in 1840 included

a. a high protective tariff.

b. government-financed internal improvements.

c. passage of an independent treasury act.

d. annexation of Texas.


92. Why was John Tyler's ascendancy to the presidency a disaster for the Whig party?

a. He vetoed bank and tariff bills that were central to the Whig program.

b. He was a states' rights advocate.

c. He was a former Democrat.

d. all of these.


93. What was one of the reasons that "dark horse" James K. Polk won the presidency in 1844?

a. Polk came out strongly against a protective tariff.

b. Polk convinced many northerners that annexation of Texas would be in their best interest.

c. He received an overwhelming popular vote.

d. The Whig party appeared to be the party of immigration and alcohol.


94. For an antebellum American, "Manifest Destiny" meant that

a. God had ordained that the United States would eventually and inevitably come into possession of the entire continent.

b. the Democratic party was destined to become the dominant national political party.

c. it was obvious that the United States would, in future decades, dominate the trading routes to China.

d. God had ordained that the southern system of slavery should eventually expand to all the territories on the Pacific coast.


95. What were President James K. Polk's objectives in Oregon?

a. division of the territory at the 49th parallel

b. war with Britain to acquire the territory to 54 40'

c. division of the territory along the Columbia River

d. peaceful, joint Anglo-American occupation of the territory


96. What military leader in the Mexican War became a national hero?

a. Winfield Scott

b. Robert E. Lee

c. John C. Frmont

d. Zachary Taylor


97. The Wilmot Proviso was a

a. plea to apply the terms of the Missouri Compromise to any territory acquired from Mexico.

b. stipulation that slavery be prohibited in any territory acquired in the negotiations with Mexico.

c. legislative amendment that said that the United States should acquire only Texas as a result of the Mexican War.

d. request to outlaw slavery in Texas if the United States won the Mexican War.


98. The issues behind the Compromise of 1850 included all of the following except

a. the ruling in the Dred Scott case.

b. the sale of slaves in the District of Columbia.

c. the policy regarding slavery in the territories.

d. enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act.


99. What was the reaction of many northerners to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850?

a. They joined with southerners to prevent runaway slaves from escaping to Canada.

b. They began campaigns to repeal the old "personal-liberty laws" that had been passed under the Articles of Confederation.

c. They became more vehement abolitionists.

d. They built special jails to accommodate slaves captured on northern soil.



100. What was the significance of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin?

a. It contradicted prevailing stereotypes that described dark-skinned blacks as docile and submissive and light-skinned blacks as aggressive and intelligent.

b. all of these

c. By presenting a dynamic slave society, the book challenged the common notion that slavery tore apart the black family.

d. It provoked a more aggressive antisouthern and antislavery position in those who were uncertain on the slavery issue.


101. In the presidential election of 1852

a. Franklin Pierce refused to run for reelection.

b. Whig candidate Winfield Scott won by vigorously endorsing the Compromise of 1850.

c. the Whig party lost much support in the South and began to break up.

d. Franklin Pierce won with virtually no opposition.


102. The success of the Know-Nothings suggested that

a. there was significant antislavery sentiment in the Northeast.

b. all of these

c. there was significant nativist sentiment in the Northeast.

d. the voters of the Northeast were looking for alternatives to the two main political parties.


103. "Bleeding Kansas" was brought about because

a. proslavery forces stole the election for the state legislature.

b. all of these

c. John Brown led a brutal murder of five proslavery men.

d. antislavery forces took up "Beecher's Bibles."


104. The Dred Scott decision declared that Congress could not

a. bar slavery in the territories.

b. prohibit slaveholders from taking slaves into northern states.

c. pass a fugitive slave law.

d. admit new slave states.


105. As a result of the 1858 Illinois senatorial election,

a. Stephen Douglas lost crucial political support in the southern states.

b. Abraham Lincoln's political career went into temporary eclipse.

c. the Democratic party was able to solidify its dominance of national politics.

d. Abraham Lincoln became the new Republican senator from Illinois.


106. As a result of John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry,

a. northern moderates formed vigilante committees to ensure civil peace in the southern states.

b. southerners realized that extremists like John Brown had no ties to northern abolitionists.

c. southern slaveowners were convinced that a slave uprising could never be successful.

d. both northern abolitionists and southern fire-eaters were incensed.


107. After the 1860 presidential election, Republicans rejected any further compromise on the slavery issue because they

a. felt that the issue had already been settled by the election of 1860.

b. believed that moderate southerners would soon regain control, and that compromise on matters of basic principle was tantamount to surrender.

c. believed that war was the only method left to settle the issue.

d. believed that the nation was better off split in half because it obviously couldn't exist half slave and half free.


108. Conscription was

a. unnecessary during the Civil War.

b. instituted first by the Confederacy.

c. already in place nationally when the Civil War began.

d. instituted first by the Union.








109. Why was the Union more politically cohesive than the Confederacy?

a. The multiplicity of political parties in the South made Confederate party politics vicious and divisive.

b. There was little political dissent in the North because northerners were united in a crusade against slavery.

c. The presence of a vocal and politically powerful opposition in the North forced the Republicans to unite behind their leader.

d. The South had no tradition of vigorous politics or strong political leadership.


110. Which border state is correctly matched with its reason for refusing to join the Confederacy?

a. Delaware: It was mainly a nonslaveholding state that had no desire to be part of a slave Confederacy.

b. Virginia: The nonslaveholding eastern part of the state refused to secede with the western part which named itself West Virginia when it joined the Confederacy.

c. Kentucky: It had a Unionist legislature whose resolve was strengthened by the presence of Grant's troops across the river in Illinois.

d. Missouri: The citizens of this slave state were united in their loyalty to the Union and in their belief that an independent slave confederacy could not survive.


111. The development of the rifle was important because it

a. enabled generals to rely less on cavalry.

b. permitted more effective use of the bayonet.

c. invalidated traditional military tactics.

d. eliminated the value of trenches in defensive action.


112. George B. McClellan was

a. all of these

b. a candidate for president.

c. a proslavery Democrat.

d. a Union general.


113. The Battle of Antietam in September 1862

a. encouraged Great Britain and France to recognize the Confederacy as an independent nation.

b. was a strategic victory for the South because General Grant called off his invasion of Richmond and encouraged Great Britain and France to recognize the Confederacy as an independent nation.

c. was a strategic victory for the South because General Grant called off his invasion of Richmond.

d. encouraged Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.


114. Which of the following Union military objectives proved the hardest and took the longest to accomplish?

a. taking New Orleans

b. seizing the islands off the South's Atlantic coast in order to strengthen the blockade

c. gaining control of the Mississippi River

d. taking Richmond


115. Which person is correctly paired with his plan or technique for military victory?

a. Sherman: "total war"

b. McClellan: surround the Confederacy and choke it into submission

c. Lincoln: a bloodless defeat followed by a negotiated peace that would leave slavery intact

d. Winfield Scott: simultaneous, coordinated attacks on several fronts


116. The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution included all of the following provisions except

a. disqualification from state and national office of all prewar officeholders.

b. citizenship in both the nation and its states for all persons born or naturalized in the United States.

c. the guaranteed right to vote for male blacks and loss of representation in Congress for states that denied them suffrage.

d. explicit repudiation of the Confederate debt.


117. As a result of the impeachment and trial of President Andrew Johnson,

a. Republicans and Democrats in Congress at last found a cause around which they all could rally.

b. the president was convicted, dismissed from office, and replaced by Ulysses S. Grant.

c. Johnson was acquitted and emerged triumphant in his battle with the Radicals in Congress.

d. a precedent was established against the impeachment of presidents solely on political grounds.


118. In the Republican reconstruction governments of the South the group that held the most political offices was the

a. carpetbaggers.

b. blacks.

c. scalawags.

d. planter elite.

119. Which of the following descriptions best fits the carpetbaggers?

a. uneducated freedmen who moved to northern cities for better economic opportunity, and who took with them only what they could fit in a traveling bag

b. northerners who went South seeking wealth and power, and who came with so few possessions that they could be stuffed into traveling bags made of carpet material

c. predominantly poor and ignorant white southerners who sought to profit from Republican rule

d. former Union soldiers who hoped to buy land, open factories, build railroads, or enjoy a warmer climate


120. During Reconstruction, what group was the backbone of the Republican party in the South, providing eight out of ten Republican votes?

a. scalawags

b. freedmen

c. carpetbaggers

d. none of these


121. To meet the challenge of Republican congressional Reconstruction, Democratic political action included all of the following activities except

a. publicity campaigns to demean the new state constitutions.

b. support for dissident Republican factions.

c. rallies to raise support for a renewed attempt at secession.

d. vigilante efforts to reduce black votes.


122. The main pillar of authority in the southern black community after the Civil War was usually the

a. local public schoolteacher.

b. head of the county Democratic party.

c. local justice of the peace.

d. minister of the black church.


123. The sharecropping and crop-lien systems that developed in the post-Civil War South

a. reduced the portion of southern land owned and controlled by the planter elite.

b. contributed to soil depletion, agricultural backwardness, and southern poverty.

c. forced most black people out of agriculture and into southern cities.

d. tied white planters and black tenants together economically, but had no effect on white small farmers.


124. Ulysses S. Grant's election in 1868 suggested that

a. American voters were tired of corruption in government.

b. the Republicans needed the newly enfranchised southern freedmen to ensure national victories.

c. Reconstruction was not popular anywhere in the country.

d. sound money was the first priority for most voters.


125. Which of the following Reconstruction laws is correctly paired with one of its provisions?

a. Army Appropriations Act: expanded the powers of military commanders in the South

b. Supplementary Freedman's Bureau Act: prohibited the president from removing federal officials without consent of the Senate

c. Civil Rights Act of 1866: required military commanders to initiate voter enrollment

d. Reconstruction Act of 1867: invalidated state governments formed under Lincoln and Johnson


126. Most historians today view Radical Reconstruction as a democratic experiment that failed because it

a. relied on excessive military force instead of political persuasion.

b. left blacks without property so that they were economically unable to defend their political rights.

c. was overly vindictive and harsh toward all white southerners.

d. was unrealistic in its expectation that illiterate blacks could be turned into responsible citizens overnight.


127. White settlers migrating to the West gave the Plains Indians

a. smallpox.

b. knowledge of fire.

c. quinine.

d. opium.


128. Lakota Sioux culture included

a. all of these

b. ceremonies in which young men "sacrificed" themselves through self-torture to gain access to spiritual power.

c. the belief that life is a series of circlesthe circles of relatives, band, tribe, and nation.

d. belief in a hierarchy of plant and animal spirits whose help could be invoked through the Sun Dance.


129. The Board of Indian Commissioners was

a. an agency established by Congress to Christianize the Indians on reservations and teach them farming.

b. a council of representatives from all the tribes of the Plains Indians that established Indian self-government on reservations.

c. an Indian social-welfare organization that encouraged Indians to produce traditional crafts for sale.

d. a militant Indian organization dedicated to preserving tribal customs.


130. When army officer Richard H. Pratt said he wanted to "kill the Indian and save the man," he meant that

a. he wanted to equip Indians with the skills necessary to live in modern American society, which meant Indians had to give up their own culture.

b. killing heathen Indians would save their souls.

c. he wanted to kill Geronimo for kidnapping one of Pratt's fellow officers.

d. Indians had to be killed in order to save white men who were settling the frontier.


131. What was the Ghost Dance?

a. a performance by "Princess Wovoka" that became popular in Buffalo Bill's Wild West show

b. a "shaking" circle dance taught to Indians by Shakers in order to convert them to the Shaker religion

c. a traditional wedding dance in which Sioux women asked the ghosts of their ancestors to ensure fertility

d. a ritual where Indians danced until they were dizzy and fell into a trance in which they saw visions of the future


132. An Indian people who adjusted somewhat more successfully than others to the reservation system, preserving traditional ways while selectively incorporating elements of the new order, were the

a. Sioux.

b. Five Civilized Tribes.

c. Navajo.

d. Maya.


133. Which of the following were the largest landholders in the West?

a. cattle barons

b. banks

c. gold miners

d. railroads


134. What were the terms of the Homestead Act?

a. It offered 40 acres and a mule to former slaves who relocated to the frontier after the Civil War.

b. It granted ex-soldiers from Homestead, Pennsylvania, a parcel of western land as payment for service during the Civil War.

c. It was devised by Massachusetts senator Henry Homestead to break up Indian reservations and provide 160 acres of land to Indians for farming.

d. It offered 160 acres of land to any settler who would pay a $10 registration fee, live on the land for five years, and cultivate and improve it.




135. Western farmers generally

a. were rugged frontier individualists, not dependent on external forces such as the railroads and the international grain market.

b. used black sharecroppers to farm portions of their large land holdings.

c. represented the American dream because they needed only a few hundred dollars and a parcel of land from the government to get rich in "agribusiness."

d. specialized in a single cash crop such as wheat or corn because the expense of setting up farm operations was so high.


136. The first transcontinental railroad was

a. financed entirely by private capital, with no government subsidy.

b. chartered originally by the Confederacy, in its hopes to take over the West, and then continued by the Union after the South's defeat.

c. completed in 1869 with the joining of the Union Pacific and Central tracks in Utah.

d. built primarily with forced labor of Sioux, Cheyenne, and Comanche prisoners of war and black slaves.


137. Relations between Anglos and Mexican-Americans in Texas in the 1840s and 1850s were characterized by

a. harassment of Mexican-Americans by Anglos and retaliation by Mexican bandits.

b. friendship cemented by their mutual hatred of blacks and Indians.

c. peaceful coexistence because most Mexican-Americans assimilated into Anglo society.

d. intermarriage.


138. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, the federal government attempted to confine all Plains Indian tribes on two big reservations located in

a. Nebraska and Kansas.

b. Oklahoma and South Dakota.

c. Texas and Arizona.

d. California and Oregon.


139. Joseph G. McCoy turned the cattle industry into a bonanza by

a. surveying and shortening the Chisholm Trail.

b. building a new stockyard in Abilene.

c. guaranteeing the transport of his steers in railcars, thus earning a kickback from the railroads.

d. all of these


140. Which of the following statements best describes cowboys?

a. none of these

b. Cowboys were almost always white, because there was a deep prejudice against blacks and Mexicans among cattlemen.

c. Cowboys were well paid, earning more than laborers and generally enjoying comfortable working conditions.

d. Cowboys were usually the owner-operators of cattle ranches.


141. The "range wars" pitted which two groups against each other?

a. cowboys and Indians

b. Mexican bandits and Anglo farmers

c. cattlemen and farmers

d. renegade soldiers and Indians


142. Hidatsa culture was characterized by

a. marriage within the same clan or kinship group.

b. a matriarchy.

c. the ownership of private property.

d. emphasis on reciprocal obligations between tribal members.


143. "Buffalo Bill" Cody's Wild West show

a. presented mock battles of army scouts and Indians as morality dramas of good versus evil.

b. all of these

c. featured Sitting Bull and Chief Red Cloud.

d. offered demonstrations of steer roping.





144. According to the new view of the environment that was developing in the late nineteenth century,

a. nature existed to be tamed and conquered.

b. natural wildlife management would help to stabilize the buffalo population.

c. humans tended to be disturbers of nature.

d. natural resources were abundant and existed to be exploited.


145. The conservation movement

a. was secretly funded by entrepreneurs anxious to avert government legislation.

b. emphasized the abundance of western land.

c. destroyed the old legend of the western frontier as the seedbed of American virtues.

d. was an attempt to educate the public about the rapacious destruction of the environment.



















Page 1


1. d

2. b

3. b

4. c

5. c

6. c

7. b

8. b

9. a

10. c

11. d

12. c

13. a

14. a

15. b

16. a

17. b

18. c

19. d

20. c

21. d

22. a

23. a

24. c

25. a

26. c

27. c

28. a

29. b

30. b

31. b

32. a

33. b

34. d

35. c

36. d

37. c

38. c

39. d

40. c

41. a

42. b

43. d

44. c

45. d

46. c

47. b

48. c

Page 2


49. c

50. d

51. a

52. b

53. c

54. a

55. b

56. d

57. b

58. c

59. a

60. d

61. d

62. c

63. c

64. a

65. c

66. d

67. b

68. a

69. b

70. b

71. c

72. a

73. a

74. c

75. d

76. c

77. b

78. d

79. d

80. d

81. d

82. a

83. b

84. c

85. a

86. a

87. d

88. c

89. d

90. a

91. b

92. d

93. b

94. a

95. a

96. d

Page 3


97. b

98. a

99. c

100. d

101. c

102. b

103. b

104. a

105. a

106. d

107. b

108. b

109. c

110. c

111. a

112. a

113. d

114. d

115. a

116. c

117. d

118. c

119. d

120. b

121. c

122. d

123. b

124. b

125. d

126. b

127. a

128. a

129. a

130. a

131. d

132. c

133. d

134. d

135. d

136. c

137. a

138. b

139. d

140. a

141. c

142. d

143. b

144. c

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145. d